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Poodle: description, nature and diseases [veterinarian's recommendations


  • History of the breed Poodle
  • Poodle breed description
    • Robe
  • Poodle character
  • Grooming Poodle
    • Hair
    • Ears
    • Teeth
    • Eyes
    • Poodle haircut
  • Poodle feeding
  • Disease poodle
    • Von Willebrand disease
    • Cataracts in poodles
    • Diabetes
    • Cushing's disease
    • Legg Calve-Perthes disease
    • Idiopathic epilepsy
    • Patellar dislocation in miniature poodles and toy
    • Immunological blood diseases: IMHA - autohemolytic anemia, immune background thrombocytopenia
    • PRA progressive retinal atrophy
    • Other common poodle diseases
    • Less common diseases in the poodle
  • Is it worth choosing a poodle?

History of the breed Poodle

Poodle - CANICHE (French. from cane male duck), POODLE.

These intelligent, friendly and playful dogs were initially used as hunting dogs, for hunting waterfowl and as truffle hunter. Over time, their utility changed to companion dogs.

These canine aristocrats visited the courts in Europe. Their intelligence and speed of learning were appreciated, so often poodles were circus dogs.

Holders poodles were e.g. Beethoven, Sigismund the Old.

The breed is still not very popular in Poland; Most likely the first farms come from France, but there are conflicting reports that the poodles' homeland may also be Germany or Spain.

Poodles are in Group IX FCI (Toy and Companion Dogs), Section 2 (Poodles).

Poodle breed description

There are 4 sizes among the poodles

  1. Big poodle.
  2. Medium poodle.
  3. Miniature Poodle.
  4. Toy poodle.

The height and weight of the poodles

Big poodle45 - 60 cm weight 18 - 22 kg
Medium poodle35 - 45 cm weight 10 - 14 kg
Miniature Poodle28 - 35 cm weight 4 - 7 kg
Toy poodle24 - 28 cm at the withers, weight 3 - 4 kg
The size of a poodle Toy poodle

Regardless of the size, both the large poodle and the miniature poodle should have the same proportions, they cannot have stunted features, i.e. changes in the proportions of the head in relation to the body. Poodles have a very long muzzle, which should be 9/10 of the skull's length.

HeadProportional to the body, not too bulky or too delicate, occipital protuberance well defined, in miniature and toy it may be slightly marked.
Ridge of the nosePerfectly simple.
EyesAlmond shape.
EarsLong, sloping along the cheeks, rounded at the tip, covered with wavy hair.
NeckStrong, slightly arched below the nape of the neck.
RidgeShort, strong and muscular loin, rounded croup.
ChestOval in cross-section, high and slightly protruding forechest.
BellySlightly tucked up.
Front limbsStraight and parallel, well-muscled.
HindquartersParallel with very clearly visible muscles.
TailHighly set, often cut in a characteristic pompom.
Poodle breed description Poodle breed description


This dog has woolly hair, very dense, undercoat much longer than the outer coat, it can be of 2 types:

  • curly,
  • stringy - forming characteristic cords with a minimum length of 20 cm.

FCI recognized ointments:

  • black,
  • White,
  • brown (dark),
  • silver,
  • fawn (light fawn to red fawn).

Other colors are also permitted in the United States.

What it looks like standard poodle red you can see in the video below

Red standard poodle puppies having fun playing
Watch this video on YouTube

Poodle character

  • Poodles are social dogs, have a friendly character and are loyal.
  • They are distinguished by stubbornness, sometimes they can be stubborn.
  • They are dignified and elegant dogs, which is why they were the favorites of courtiers in Europe.
  • They learn very quickly and are amenable to all types of training.
Poodle character

Grooming Poodle

Grooming a poodle can be quite a challenge.

Poodle care


Poodles should be sheared and combed regularly as they tend to form knots, especially when changing from puppy to adult coat.

Poodles do not shed. Baths, preferably not more than once a month, of course in shampoos intended for dogs, avoid whitening shampoos.

You can use dog conditioners so that the hair does not become tangled and has the desired, localized appearance.

Hair should be combed every few days, dry hair should not be combed, before combing it, you can slightly moisten it with water, or use special dog moisturizing preparations.


Ears should be checked for cleanliness, but it is inadvisable to clean the ears too often - clean the healthy ear once a week and only the outer auricle. Excessive care in the hygiene of the ear area can disrupt the natural ear flora and cause inflammation. For cleaning, we use only preparations specially designed for this purpose.

In the case of ear infections or ear pain, it is necessary to contact a veterinarian.


You should take care of the teeth of dogs of this breed - especially in miniature poodles and toy poodles, because this breed has a tendency to gingivitis, it is worth getting the dog used to brushing teeth and taking care of oral hygiene from a puppy.

Dogs of this breed, especially Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle, are more prone to tartar build-up.


Poodle dog - discolored coat

You should take care of the eye area, white poodles may show up discoloration in this area, rinse your eyes with a moistened cotton swab from the outer corner to the center.

Poodle haircut

Poodle haircut

Poodles prepared for show should have special show hairstyles, detailed description of which is provided in the breed standard guidelines.

The basis of the haircut is to cut specific areas and shaping the remaining hair into a typical poodle look.

Initially, when poodles were still used as hunting dogs for waterfowl, the haircut was to protect individual parts of the body, e.g. the hair was left in the area of ​​the kidneys to protect them from freezing, and the pompom on the tail served to make the dog visible while diving.

Poodle feeding

Poodle feeding

In large poodles, it is advisable to give food in smaller portions, 2 times a day, never before physical activity, to avoid gastric torsion, which, although rarely, can happen in this breed of dogs.

Both the Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle are a breed that can be picky about dog food.

It's worth it supplement vitamins for dogs and unsaturated fatty acids in order to strengthen and improve the quality of the coat, it is worth using preparations for the protection of articular cartilage, especially in large poodles.

The amount of food should be adjusted to the size of the dog.

When feeding with maintenance feeds, we should follow the nutritional tables that are on the back of each feed, and when choosing nutrition, analyze the composition of the feed.

Disease poodle

Disease poodle

Von Willebrand disease

Is it blood clotting disorder due to the deficiency of one of the blood clotting factors - von Willebrand factor. It is an inherited disorder. It is manifested by increased bleeding during surgeries, injections or tooth replacement, as well as in advanced cases by bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract and, consequently, anemia, which often requires blood transfusion.

The bleeding time is prolonged and the prothrombin time is normal.

Diagnostics consists in determining the level of von Willebrand factor.

Cataracts in poodles

Cataract, that is, clouding of the lens of the dog's eye.

The disease may have a genetic background, but it may also have a nutritional or metabolic background, e.g. in the course of diabetes.

The treatment may consist in removing the lens, but such treatment may be used in the case of a mature cataract, and eye drops that delay the development of cataracts can also be administered, unfortunately their effectiveness is questionable.


It is a metabolic disorder involving insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus occurs mainly in middle-aged and elderly dogs. It may be a complication of acute pancreatitis.

It runs with symptoms:

  • increased thirst,
  • increased urination,
  • initially with increased appetite with the progressive weight loss of the animal.

In advanced cases, the appetite is reduced.

Treatment is based on the use of insulin, and a special diet also plays a role.

Untreated diabetes can lead to life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis.

Cushing's disease

Cushing's disease, or an overactive adrenal cortex.

It is a disease caused by chronic elevation cortisol in blood.

It can be in 2 forms:

  • pituitary gland - where the pituitary gland produces too much of a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol,
  • adrenal gland - where the adrenal glands themselves produce its excess.

It manifests itself primarily:

  • increased thirst,
  • increased urination,
  • skin changes - alopecia, blackheads,
  • sometimes calcification of the skin,
  • obesity,
  • the rise of the so-called. "Frog " belly,
  • loss of muscle tissue in favor of adipose tissue.

Often times, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus may be secondary.

This disease is diagnosed on the basis of blood tests and special tests (acth stimulation or dexamethasone inhibition).

Treatment may be pharmacological (administering mitotane) or surgical (removal adrenal glands in case of adrenal gland tumor).

Legg Calve-Perthes disease

Legg Calve-Perthes disease, or aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.

Unilateral or bilateral lameness is manifested.

Miniature poodle and toy poodle dogs are especially predisposed.

Idiopathic epilepsy

Epilepsy shows up between the age of 1 and 5 of the dog.

It manifests as convulsions of varying severity.

Treatment is necessary for frequent seizures.

Patellar dislocation in miniature poodles and toy

This is a medial or lateral displacement of the patella to the edge of the femoral block.

The Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle are both predisposed to this disease.

The disease may be asymptomatic or lameness of various severity.

Surgical treatment is the treatment of choice.

Immunological blood diseases: IMHA - autohemolytic anemia, immune background thrombocytopenia

Both diseases are diseases of the immune system

They consist in the production of antibodies against red blood cells by the body (at IMHA) or platelets (immune-background thrombocytopenia).

These antibodies cause the body to "fight" its own blood cells by itself.

The consequence of this is anemia, often very acute, life-threatening.

Treatment is application immunosuppressive drugs that is, those that silence the immune system.

Drugs such as steroid anti-inflammatory drugs in immunosuppressive doses, azathioprine if cyclosporine. Treatment is lengthy, sometimes it must last for the rest of your life.

PRA progressive retinal atrophy

PRA is a genetic disease that unfortunately leads to blindness in the poodle.

It runs along with the weakening of the retinal vessels and the remodeling of its epithelium. PRA is diagnosed by electroretinography in puppy age (6 - 8 weeks.) there is no treatment, sick poodles must not be bred.

Other common poodle diseases

  • gingivitis,
  • otitis,
  • atopy and malasesiosis related to it,
  • demyelination of the spinal cord of miniature poodles,
  • mitral valve dysplasia.

Less common diseases in the poodle

  • entropium,
  • double row of eyelashes,
  • hip dysplasia,
  • stomach twist,
  • optic nerve dysplasia.

Is it worth choosing a poodle?

Both the miniature poodle for companionship and the large poodle are extremely loyal and relatively easy to pose. Poodles are stubborn dogs so you need more patience with them. It is worth remembering that dogs of this breed were used as hunting dogs for waterfowl.

Due to the fact that the poodle can have 4 sizes (large poodle breed, medium poodle breed, miniature poodle breed, toy poodle breed) it is the perfect dog for everyone.

Poodle care is more demanding, but it is not a big problem these days due to the multitude of grooming salons.

What is the life expectancy of poodle dogs?

The life span of poodle dogs is approximately 12-15 years.

What do poodle dogs most often suffer from??

The most frequently mentioned diseases of poodle dogs are von Willebrand's disease, cataracts, diabetes, Cushing's disease, Legg Calve-Perthes disease, idiopathic epilepsy, patellar dislocation, autohemolytic anemia, immune background thrombocytopenia, PRA, or gastric torsion (large poodle).

Sources used >>

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