Hyperplasia in a dog: how to recognize and treat it [Vet Katarzyna Hołownia
Epochlea in a dog, by definition, it is a benign growth of soft tissue on the gingival surface. This definition refers to the location of the lesion without specifying the origin or degree of malignancy of the resulting deformity.Epochlea in a dog
Epulums are very often misdiagnosed - this is the term used to describe most papillary lesions that are located within the oral cavity.
However, gingival deformities of this type are not always benign changes that can be ignored.
Every lesion, even seemingly harmless, should be carefully diagnosed to determine whether it requires surgical intervention or not, and to pay attention to whether it is enlarging - lesions located in the oral cavity can cause significant difficulties in eating if they become large.
The most common bumps in a dog's mouth are:
- squamous cell carcinoma,
- acanthotic enameloma.
It is worth emphasizing that very often lesions located in the oral cavity are malignant.
Mild gum deformities are less common, but in the following article I will focus mainly on them.
- Epochlea in a dog
- Predisposed breeds
- Symptoms of epilepsy in a dog
- Gum deformities associated with inflammation
- Diagnostics of epochillas
- Treatment of epilepsy in dogs
Epochlea in a dogHow to recognize a disease in a dog?
There are different forms of epiglomas, depending on the type of cells they are made of.
And yes, there are hypochondroses:
- squamous cell,
They may have a soft or hard structure, they tend to be pedunculated and well separated from the surrounding tissues.
Usually they are located in the front parts of the mouth, but they can also be found near the molars. The most common form of ependymomas in dogs is in the buccal area of the mouth.
Predisposed breeds with oral lesions particularly common include:
- English bulldogs,
- french bulldogs,
- German Shepherds,
- miniature and medium sized poodles,
- Miniature, Toy and Medium Schnauzers.
Epulums are very often associated with poor oral hygiene - the larger the plaque and tartar, the greater the likelihood of gingival growth at the site of irritation.
Symptoms of epilepsy in a dogSymptoms of epilepsy in a dog
Superids are not always easily noticeable. Yes, when they reach impressive sizes, it is hard to overlook them, then they cause a lot of discomfort to the pet.
However, in the early stages, they may resemble a slight prominence originating in the gums. Initially, they may be asymptomatic, but as they increase in size and volume, they can be bothersome.
The close contact with the tooth causes the formation of the so-called "pseudo-pocket " - a space in which food remains accumulate, which is a great medium for the growth of bacteria.
The presence of the pseudo-pocket, along with its contents, causes the growth of bacterial plaque and the formation of tartar, which, by penetrating the alveolar pocket, weakens the strength of the alveolar ligaments. This is how periodontal diseases develop.
The first sign of oral problems is usually bad breath.
Of course, the smell of a dog's exhaled air will never be pleasant to the human nose, but it should not be intense, sweating, putrefying.
Caregivers may observe that the pet eats with one side of the mouth, evidently avoiding biting the side on which the lesion is located.
Your pet may be more willing to eat soft dog food while avoiding hard bites. There may also be decreased appetite and, as a result, if the symptoms are ignored for a long time, the animal may lose weight and become emaciated.
If the epithelium is located close to the bite line or is very intensely developed, cauliflower-shaped, with warty growths, it can be easily damaged when chewing bites.
If your dog is bleeding, the dog's saliva may be blood-colored, abruptly interrupting meals, and jumping away from the bowl. Occasionally, dogs may show signs of itching on the cheek, chin, or mandibular branch at the site of the epigastrium.
In extreme cases, when the lesion is malignant, it can cause deformation of the jaw bone or mandible.
Such changes are very sensitive to all kinds of damage and injuries, and may predispose the animal to pathological fractures.
With bone deformation caused by neoplastic growth, the animal may lose teeth where the lesion is located.
Skeletal deformities most often concern malignant tumors mentioned above. Apart from them, there may also be other symptoms, not related to the oral cavity in which the primary focus is located.
Melanoma has a tendency to distant metastasis - apart from the lesion in the oral cavity, there are enlarged lymph nodes, neoplastic lesions in the parenchymal organs, lungs, and skin deformities and tumors.
Gum deformities associated with inflammation
One of the causes of gum growth is chronic inflammation in the mouth.
Breeds where this is often seen are the Brachycephalic Dogs - Boxers, English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, Pugs and Shihtzu.
In the oral cavity of a brachycephalic dog, there are often many deformations and defects - ranging from incorrect positioning of the teeth, malocclusion, ending with the overgrowth of the folds of the hard palate.
Food remains get caught between the excessively developed mucosa folds, and as they decompose, they are a great breeding ground for bacteria. The body's reaction is a strong inflammation and softening of the palate.
The huge amount of pathogens also causes an overreaction in the gums. Deformities appear, resembling extensive epithelium diffused over several teeth.
It happens that this condition is observed with all teeth present in the oral cavity - the gum is fluffed, there are cauliflower-like growths between the teeth, the teeth show pathological mobility.
Often it is enough to perform oral cavity sanitation and properly conducted prophylactic procedures (brushing the mouth, using wipes soaked in appropriate disinfectants, using oral hygiene preparations) to minimize mucosal growth and improve the condition of the animal.
Diagnostics of epochillasDiagnostics
In the case of lesions located within the oral cavity, fine-needle biopsy often does not give a definite answer.
Fine-needle biopsy works very well for the diagnosis of lesions located on the skin or located shallowly underneath it, but in the case of ependymomas it carries a significant risk of a diagnostic error.
Most often, during a fine-needle biopsy, cells that are too shallow are collected and the result that is obtained during the examination is "inflammation ".
Therefore, in order to make an accurate diagnosis, it is worth taking a larger fragment of the lesion and sending a tissue fragment for histopathological examination.
The result obtained in this way is much more reliable, thanks to which the doctor taking care of the animal can correctly determine the prognosis and further treatment.
In the case of bone-infiltrating or diffuse lesions, those in which the end or beginning of the lesion cannot be accurately determined, additional imaging tests are worthwhile.
The X-ray image of the skull will allow to determine whether the bone degenerative process has started, how intense it is and whether there is a risk of iatrogenic fracture of the jaw bone during surgery.
In advanced cases, when changes in the oral cavity are very large, or when intense deformities are observed, it is worth performing computed tomography with contrast - the boundaries of the lesion will be clearly marked, thanks to which it will be possible to precisely plan the procedure.
Computed tomography with contrast will also show any tumor metastases.
Treatment of epilepsy in dogsTreatment of epilepsy in dogs
In most cases, if the lesion is not malignant and there are no contraindications for the procedure, The dog's epilates should be removed.
This treatment should be combined with the sanitation of the oral cavity - removal of deposits, tartar and reducing the amount of pathogens in the oral cavity will significantly improve the comfort of the pet's functioning.
In the case of pedunculated lesions, surgical intervention requires the insertion of a small number of sutures, and convalescence is quite quick.
After the procedure, however, it is worth using oral hygiene preparations to minimize the risk of mucosal growth elsewhere in the mouth.
However, the situation is different when diagnosed as a malignant neoplasm.
Then the surgical procedure should be carefully planned and the cutting margin should be determined with great precision. The first treatment has the best chance of success and planning a sufficiently wide margin may reduce the chance of disease recurrence.
In cases of high-grade tumors with high potential for regrowth, the recommended surgical intervention with an appropriate margin may include parts of the mandible or maxilla.
After the procedure, it is worth implementing supportive treatment, including chemotherapy or radiotherapy, to minimize the risk of distant metastases.
The prognosis of epiglomas depends on the origin of the tumors. The prognosis is good if the tissue is defined as benign growth or the lesion is caused by inflammation or irritation.
After the implementation of appropriate preventive measures, the risk of recurrence or regrowth of ependymomas is small.
If cancer cells are found on a histopathological examination, the prognosis depends on the steps taken. Leaving the neoplastic lesion without implementing any measures usually ends with the pet's death - the lesion grows larger, making it impossible to eat normally.
When a dog is diagnosed with epilepsy, the decision to undergo surgery and supportive treatment increases the animal's chances of survival.
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