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Jack Russell Terrier: character, description, diseases [veterinarian's recommendations

Jack Russell Terrier

Jack Russell Terrier is a small, inconspicuous dog who is a real star among pets ?

Dogs of this breed have appeared many times in film productions and series, such as "Fraiser ", "My friend, Skip ", "Wishbone ", "Mask " or "Artist ".

One of them - Uggie - became a historic winner of the Golden Collar and was the first dog to appear on the red carpet and even on stage during the Oscars in 2012.

Another known JRT Bothie is the only dog ​​that has placed its paw on both poles of the globe.

Holders Jack russell terrier were m.in. Prince Charles and Paul McCartney.

Where does the popularity of this breed come from and is it suitable for everyone? You will find the answer in this article.

  • History of the JRT breed
  • Jack russell terrier breed description
    • Jack russell terrier coat and coat
  • Jack russell terrier character
  • Jack russell terrier care
  • Jack russell terrier disease
    • Muscle tiredness
    • Lens dislocation
    • Malesiosis
    • Fish scales
    • Diabetes
    • Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head
    • Patellar dislocation
    • Pituitary tumor
  • Is it worth choosing a Jack russell terrier??

History of the JRT breed

Jack russel terrier

Jack russell terrier owes its name to pastor John Russell (also known as Jack) from Devon County in Great Britain.

The pastor was engaged in dog breeding, hunting and horse riding.

He was also one of the founders of the Kennel Club and in his activities he sought to obtain a specific type of terrier by crossing many other breeds.

Initially, the recognized name was Parson jack russell terrier, which allowed two exterior types, and since 2000 Jack russell terrier and Parson russell terrier they are two separate races.

Jack russell terrier breed description

It is a dog belonging to the so-called. of small breeds, and their height at the withers varies from 25 to 35 cm.

It is said that the ideal weight corresponds to 1 kg for every 5 cm of height.

SilhouetteInscribed in a square and gives the impression of being flexible and durable.
HeadWith a well defined stop.
EyesDark, almond-shaped.
TeethSet in a strong maxilla and mandible, they form a scissor bite.
EarsThey fall to the front in a V-shape.
NeckOne of the characteristic elements of this dog's body structure is a strong and noble neck.
RidgeStraight, deep chest with a clearly marked sternum.
TailStraight, carried upwards in motion.
HindquartersStrongly muscled.
Jack russell terrier breed description

Jack russell terrier coat and coat

The hair cover comes in three variants:

  • rough,
  • smooth,
  • broken.

Color white with brown or black markings mainly on the head and tail. They can also appear on the trunk, but the fewer these spots, the better.

Jack russell terrier breed description

I think we all know a small, white dog with patches from the movie "Mask " - that's it Jack russell terrier ?

You can also see what Jack Russell Terriers look like in the video below

Jack Russell Terrier - Open Dog Class - National Terrier 2016
Watch this video on YouTube

Jack russell terrier character

  • The JRT is primarily an intelligent and energetic dog.
  • It is the ability to quickly learn tricks and execute commands that made him an ideal candidate for an actor.
  • These dogs are cheerful, active, they like contact with humans, not necessarily with other dogs.
  • They cannot sit still and there are plenty of them everywhere.
  • They are always ready to play, they demand caresses, but they are also fierce and stubborn.
  • Once used to scare the game off, they have the urge to dig burrows and chase.
  • They are alert and can be noisy, which makes them good watchdogs.
Jack russell terrier character

Jack russell terrier care

The JRT robe is not too demanding to care for.

During the molting period, smooth-haired dogs should be combed several times a week, and apart from that, you can limit this activity and do it once a week.

Coarse-haired dogs require trimming every 2-3 months.

Bath when needed.

White or hypoallergenic shampoos can be used as these dogs are prone to skin allergies.

Jack russell terrier disease

Jack russell terrier disease

Muscle tiredness

Also known as myasthenia gravis or simply myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disease and consists in a disturbance of the flow of nerve stimuli to skeletal muscles due to the inborn lack of receptors for Ach (acetylcholine) or as an acquired disease.

The inborn form that is present in this race is already showing up in puppies several weeks old as:

  • stiff gait,
  • shuffling limbs,
  • falling over.

The acquired form manifests itself at different ages, most often with muscle weakness during and immediately after exercise, and their regeneration after rest.

It may accompany the disease expansion of the esophagus or thymoma. The treatment uses acetylcholinesterase drugs to increase muscle endurance.

Lens dislocation

Lens dislocation consists in its displacement as a result of breaking the ligaments that support it.

It is quite a medical condition characteristic of terriers, autosomal dominant.

The changes often affect both eyes and can lead to cataracts and secondary glaucoma. The recommended treatment is the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and, most often, surgical removal of the displaced lens.


Malesiosis this fungal dermatitis caused by the commensal Malassezia pachydermatis.

It accompanies diseases with the weakening of the skin barrier, such as e.g. allergies, hormonal disorders or bacterial infections, and can also occur with long-term use of glucocorticosteroids.

Skin changes occur in the form of:

  • alopecia,
  • skin hyperpigmentation,
  • redness and the appearance of a characteristic yeast-scented, light brown coating.

The skin is oily, and the most frequent rash and discharge are:

  • in ears,
  • between the fingers,
  • in the abdominal region of the neck,
  • in skin folds.

We treat malasiosia topically and generally with antifungal preparations. It is also important to identify and treat the underlying disease.

Fish scales

This disease is rare in dogs and may affect one or more animals in a litter.

It manifests itself in characteristic scales that stick firmly to the skin and come off it in patches.

The epidermis of the finger pads and the nasal mirror is also hyperkeratotic.

Ichthyosis is diagnosed by histopathological examination and there is no causal treatment.

Therapy uses unsaturated fatty acids and baths in anti-seborrheic shampoos. The prognosis is cautious.


Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease in which glucose metabolism is disturbed due to the deficiency or lack of insulin, its receptors or the inability to transmit a signal at the correct amount.

There are two types of diabetes:

  1. Type 1 - insulin-dependent (the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and, as a consequence, no insulin is produced, and thus the blood glucose increases).
  2. Type 2 - non-insulin dependent (most common in obese dogs; characterized by a relative insulin deficiency - receptor resistance or pancreatic beta cell dysfunction).

The most common clinical symptoms include:

  • polydipsia (increased thirst),
  • polyuria (increased urination),
  • increase in appetite,
  • losing weight.

Depending on the type of diabetes, a diet or exogenous insulin is used.

Diabetes mellitus can also accompany other diseases, such as:

  • Cushing's disease,
  • inflammation of the pancreas,
  • Hypothyroidism.

You will learn everything about this disease in the article "Diabetes in dogs " - I encourage you to read.

Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head

Otherwise known as Legg Perthes Calve disease.

The vascularization of the femoral head and sometimes the femoral neck is disturbed, which leads to its deformation and severe pain.

The disease manifests itself as lameness or lack of straining on the limb, most often in several-month-old puppies.

Diagnostics includes an X-ray image, and treatment includes surgical resection of the femoral head.

Patellar dislocation

A kneecap dislocation is the dislocation of the kneecap to the medial or lateral side due to a too shallow femoral block.

The severity of the dislocation is determined on a 4-point scale:

  • 1 - no or rarely occurring lameness and protrusion of the kneecap under pressure in the examination.
  • 2 - temporary lameness.
  • 3 - constant lameness - the kneecap can be adjusted, but falls out spontaneously; there is the so-called. "Sessile " limbs.
  • 4 - permanent lameness - the kneecap is outside the block and cannot be adjusted.

First-degree cases can be physiotherapy, but significant lameness requires surgery.

Pituitary tumor

Cancerous cells in the pituitary gland produce excessive amounts ACTH, which leads to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and increased production of glucocorticoids, i.e Cushing's disease.

In the case of Jack Russell, it concerns a slightly greater percentage females (55-60%) and older dogs.

Excess cortisol causes metabolic disorders, leads to:

  • muscle wasting,
  • pressure disorders,
  • different distribution of adipose tissue,
  • skin thinning,
  • liver enlargement.

The most common symptoms are:

  • polydipsia,
  • polyuria,
  • enlargement of the outline of the abdomen,
  • increased yawning.

Diagnostics is based on urine and blood tests - general and specialized dexamethasone inhibition and ACTH stimulation tests. Treatment of pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome is practically only symptomatic.

Is it worth choosing a Jack russell terrier??

Jack russell terrier - is it worth choosing this breed??

JRT, despite its small size, is definitely not a couch dog. His vitality and the energy that bursts him must find an outlet. The dog needs exercise in the form of playing, walking, retrieving and all kinds of outdoor physical activity, such as dog sports - for example agility. A jack russell terrier dog will find itself both in a small apartment and in a house with a garden, as long as we devote time and attention to him. Since Jack Russell Terriers are naturally a hunting dog who likes digging burrows, be careful not to get bored, otherwise you can expect these burrows in the yard or in the couch ? Jack Russell Terrier dogs also tend to gain weight, so be careful about them begging glances. Jack Russell Terrier dogs are not difficult to train, they are suitable for contacts with children, although they can be wayward and it is worth teaching them the basic rules at the beginning. I can not fail to mention their outstanding intelligence among dogs, which allows them to quickly learn various tricks, and I do not mean "sit " or "give a hand " ? Twinkie from California broke the Guinness record in breaking balloons on time (100 balloons in 39.08 seconds), and Part-ex from Wales holds the Guinness record in canine extreme sports (m.in swims on a board, climbs and jumps off a cliff). So is it worth choosing a jack russell?? I think so ?

What is the life expectancy of a Jack Russell Terrier dog?

The life span of a Jack Russell Terrier dog is 13-16 years.

What do Jack Russell Terrier dogs suffer most often??

The most common diseases of Jack Russell Terriers are muscle fatigue, lens dislocation, malasesiosis, ichthyosis, diabetes mellitus, aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, patellar dislocation, pituitary tumor.

Is a Jack Russell Terrier suitable for living in a block of flats?

Yes, a Jack Russell Terrier dog can live in a small apartment.

Do Jack Russell Terrier dogs like children?

Yes, Jack Russell Terrier dogs are suitable for contact with children.

Sources used >>

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