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Apathy in dogs and cats: symptoms and causes of apathy [Wet medicine Krystyna Skiersinis

Apathy it is one of the most nonspecific symptoms that companion animals can present. At the same time, it is an extremely common symptom reported by dog ​​and cat keepers in almost every disease.

Apathy in dogs and cats

From a diagnostic point of view, apathy in dogs and cats is not a particularly sensitive indicator of a specific pathological condition, but for the owner of the animal it is a clear signal that something disturbing is happening to his pet. So if a normally active and cheerful animal suddenly becomes quiet, withdrawn and indifferent to external stimuli, and this state persists despite resting, this should be an important and clear message for the animal owner.

Apathy without obvious cause usually indicates a problem that may be related to somatic factors (e.g. illness, fatigue) or mental health. In this article, I will look at the most common causes of apathy in animals, and propose some tips and practical solutions that can help your pet return to normal functioning.

  • What is apathy?
  • How to recognize apathy in an animal?
  • Symptoms of apathy in a dog
  • Symptoms of apathy in a cat
  • The causes of apathy
    • The most common causes of apathy in animals
    • Illness and exhaustion
    • Environmental factors
  • How to interpret apathy?
  • What to do if my dog ​​/ cat is apathetic?
  • Management of apathy

What is apathy?

What is apathy?

Apathy is a state of indifference or unresponsiveness to emotional and physical stimuli. Put simply - it is a lack of energy and enthusiasm.

When trying to describe their pet's apathy, keepers often use terms such as lethargic, numb, inert, dull, etc.

For many people the word "lethargic" means that the animal is somewhat sleepy and low in energy. For veterinarians, lethargy is a term that means absolute apathy combined with a lack of response to stimuli, bordering on loss of consciousness, and often a coma.

From a medical point of view, lethargy and apathy are not synonymous, so it is often necessary to clarify and give appropriate context to the observed behavior of the pet. So we say a dog or cat is lethargic if:

  • he is unnaturally sleepy, sluggish,
  • he has less energy than usual, looks tired,
  • it is slow and inactive,
  • reacts poorly or not at all to a call,
  • shows no interest in favorite food or activities that he has previously undertaken with enthusiasm.

How to recognize apathy in an animal?

How to recognize apathy in an animal?

Adult dogs sleep 12 to 14 hours a day, and cats even longer. Puppies and kittens need more sleep than adult pets and can sleep well for 18-20 hours a day.

Periods of wakefulness are associated with the performance of various activities, such as:

  • food and water intake,
  • care,
  • game,
  • interactions with household members or other animals,
  • walks,
  • sometimes work (for working dogs),
  • as well as idle lounging and relaxing.

Both dogs and cats enjoy some sort of routine and get used to their daily schedule quickly. So if your pet appears indifferent, shows a lack of interest in daily activities and surroundings, and is unresponsive to external stimuli, such as approach to or contact with other animals or handler, it is likely not feeling well.

In such situations, it is important to observe your pet for some time.

A non-lethargic, alert dog or cat should show a reaction or an interest in the surroundings and an attempt to contact them. However, not reacting and not paying attention to the owner is not always a sign of apathy. A seemingly apathetic animal may simply rest, sleep, or even relax. However, if it does not respond to its surroundings, interaction with its owner, and physical contact, it indicates apathy.

It should be noted that apathy does not develop over months or years, but occurs within a few days. The change is noticeable and sudden, and this new behavior lasts more than a day or two.

Symptoms of apathy in a dog

Symptoms of apathy in a dog
  1. Reluctance to take up activity and lack of response to commands.
    If your dog is usually excited and energetic and has suddenly started acting lazy and won't even get up from the bed, something may be wrong. After you arrive home, instead of the usual lively and joyful greetings at the door, he can only raise his head or approach you slowly and without enthusiasm to let you know that he knows about your return, but is unable to speak. self-usual excitement.
  2. Noticeable change of mood.
    Apathetic dog will appear "less happy" without showing normal interest in favorite activities and toys. Usually lively and playful, your companion may appear sick.
  3. Increased sleeping time and / or increased frequency of sleeping.
    The dog may take more time to nap than usual, appears lethargic and lifeless, shows little or no enthusiasm for activities that he normally enjoys. If your new sleeping habits last longer than a day or two, it may be more than just feeling tired.
  4. Loss of appetite.
    Healthy dogs usually love to eat. Of course - they can be picky and will not eat every food offered, but most dogs will be tempted by their favorite treat. An apathetic dog may not run to the food bowl, may not eat with appetite, or refuse to eat at all.
  5. No desire.
    It happens that apathetic animals do not take up enough water or even drink at all. Dehydration can be dangerous for dogs, especially small or sick dogs (especially if they have diarrhea or vomiting).
  6. No interest in dog toys or other activities.
    An apathetic dog may avoid playing with its favorite toy or lose interest in the walk.
  7. The animal may be confused and less responsive to stimuli such as sounds or smells.
  8. It happens that a dog with apathy avoids people and hides in quiet places, e.g. under the bed, in the wardrobe, basement, etc.
  9. Apathy in dogs is usually clearly noticeable and this loss of verve can be seen in dogs of any age, sex, or breed.

It is obvious that the dog may become tired after intense training or excessive stimulus such as. home guests.
Older dogs and cats in particular may take time to recover from such excitement or past stress. However, if such "fatigue " persists for more than 1-2 days, it may be a signal that the cause is more serious

So it's important that owners pay attention to their pet's behavior and keep an eye on anything unusual. Apathy in dogs is often a symptom of one of the many underlying medical conditions. If your dog is lethargic, look for any other symptoms that could be a sign of the disease. If so, do not wait for the dog to "recover" and contact your vet immediately.

Symptoms of apathy in a cat

Apathy in cats, as a rule, manifests itself in a similar way to dogs.

Nevertheless, in these animals it can be more difficult to detect because felids are usually very secretive animals. For this reason, knowing the nature of our pet is necessary to be able to quickly detect a change in his mental state. Common signs of apathy in cats include:

  • Inactivity, not engaging in habitual activity.
    Even the laziest cats have their own habits, a certain daily routine, which they usually follow. So it can be lazy dragging on the floor, jumping on the window sill and watching what is happening in the garden or on the street, or a traditional round of the house. The apathetic animal stops behaving "as usual " and instead relies and does not respond to the handler.
  • Mood change.
    It can be difficult to notice, especially in calmer cats. However, if the usually lively and lively kitten, which is everywhere, becomes extremely quiet and sluggish, this may indicate apathy.
  • Extended rest time.
    An apathetic cat may sleep even longer than usual.
  • Apathetic cats may experience a lack of appetite and thirst without even responding to their favorite treats.
  • Neglect of care.
    In the case of apathy, one of the first noticeable symptoms may be the abandonment of care habits, which quickly becomes visible in the form of matted, matted or matted hair.
  • Lack of interest in interacting with the guardian.
    Healthy cats most often like to be in the company of their guardian, often initiating contact or play. Apathetic cats, however, can hide from people, completely avoid their favorite caresses and isolate themselves.
  • No interest in favorite cat toys.
  • Excessive vocalization.
    Even though most apathetic cats tend to hide and become abnormally silent, some animals may meow, demanding attention from their owner.
  • Apathetic cats can also kill outside the litter box.

While these symptoms can indicate lethargy in cats, they can also alert you to the presence of the disease. Therefore, if you observe that your cat refuses food or eats without appetite, or exhibits other disturbing symptoms, be sure to see a doctor with him to rule out a possible disease.

The causes of apathy

The causes of apathy

Animals tend to show signs of apathy when they are not feeling well. It is sometimes difficult to tell if a dog or cat is lethargic due to illness, age, or maybe just tired after a vigorous week.

Symptoms often vary and sometimes come and go on their own. There are many potential causes of apathy in animals, including:

  • ache,
  • fever,
  • injury,
  • illness.

It is difficult to determine the cause on your own, so it is recommended to consult a veterinarian.

The most common causes of apathy in animals

Common causes

Illness and exhaustion

Trying to fight an illness or infection in your body lowers your overall energy levels, causing you to become apathetic or withdrawn. During the development of the disease, the body's resources are directed to the most important systems (e.g. immune system), at the cost of reducing alertness and maintenance behaviors such as grooming and eating.

The acute phase of bacterial or viral infection can be the main cause of apathy.

The most common (morbid) causes of apathy can include:

Infectious diseases

Any bacterial or viral infection that causes a fever can make your dog or cat feel very unwell and low in energy. The most common infections that can potentially make a dog apathetic include:

  • parvovirosis,
  • nasal,
  • kennel cough,
  • Lyme disease.

In cats, these are:

  • inflammation of the upper respiratory tract,
  • leukemia,
  • feline immune deficiency virus (FIV),
  • hemobartonellosis and others.

Infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs (kennel cough)

This disease is transmitted from animal to animal and causes infection of the trachea and bronchi. Kennel cough occurs in places of high concentration of dogs, such as e.g. shelters.


Parvoviral enteritis in dogs - is a disease that causes inflammation in the digestive tract of dogs, causing vomiting and bloody diarrhea. Parvovirosis can be fatal if left untreated.


Nosehead is a disease that most often young, unvaccinated animals are exposed to. The most common, generalized form of this disease is apathy, fever, discharge from the eyes and nose, cough, and loss of appetite. It may be accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease - caused by spirochetes, transmitted by ticks. The most common symptoms are:

  • wandering lameness,
  • fever,
  • apathy and malaise,
  • lack of appetite.

Catarrh of feline

Feline catarrh is an infectious disease of cats characterized by inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and the most common symptoms:

  • runny nose,
  • sneezing,
  • discharge from the eyes,
  • high body temperature,
  • drooling,
  • apathy,
  • lack of appetite.

Feline viral leukemia

Feline viral leukemia can contribute to a variety of clinical signs, the most common of which are:

  • apathy,
  • reluctance to move,
  • weakness,
  • lack of appetite,
  • paleness.

Leukemia results in immunosuppression, and the disease may be associated with other infectious diseases, such as:

  • FIP,
  • upper respiratory tract infections,
  • FIV,
  • haemotropic mycoplasma,
  • mouth infection.


Hemobartonellosis is caused by mycoplasmas that have an affinity for the animal's red blood cells. Acute haemotropic mycoplasma occurs in cats of all ages and is most commonly found in outdoor cats.

The course of the disease and its severity vary: mild anemia develops most often, not accompanied by additional symptoms; other animals, in turn, show apathy and severe anemia, which may even be the cause of the death of the animal.

Infection with FIV

Infection with FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus) can take place in several phases and the accompanying symptoms are non-specific. Some cats have a fever and are lethargic.

Symptoms of acute enteritis, stomatitis, inflammation of the skin, conjunctiva and respiratory system may appear.

Kidney and liver diseases

Diseases such as kidney and liver disease can make your pet appear weak and exhausted.

Kidney disease

Older animals are most often affected by kidney failure. In advanced stages of failure, the animal becomes apathetic and poorly responsive to stimuli.

It is accompanied by other symptoms, such as:

  • lack of appetite,
  • vomiting,
  • increased or decreased urine output,
  • unpleasant smell from the mouth,
  • weight loss.

Liver disease

The liver is an extremely important organ in the body, and when it does not function properly, apathy appears, aversion to play and walks, as well as other non-specific symptoms, such as:

  • lack of appetite,
  • vomiting,
  • diarrhea.

In advanced stages of liver failure, more specific clinical symptoms appear, such as:

  • enlargement of the outline of the abdomen,
  • jaundice,
  • and even neurological symptoms.

Heart and lung diseases

They can lead to chronic hypoxia, which significantly affects the overall energy level of the animal. The hypoxic patient is weak, lethargic and reluctant to engage in any activity.


The diseases that cause anemia can make your dog or cat very tired after a walk and much less active. With a reduced number of red blood cells, oxygen is not transported to the cells sufficiently, which also leads to hypoxia.

Metabolic disorders

Untreated diabetes mellitus can cause extreme lethargy. This is because the animal is unable to use blood sugar to produce energy.

Other diseases such as hypothyroidism and an overactive adrenal cortex in dogs also cause apathy.

Diarrhea and / or vomiting

Diarrhea and / or vomiting can be symptoms not only of diseases affecting the digestive system, but also of many other diseases.

They can lead to dehydration and serious disturbance of the fluid and electrolyte balance, which further contributes to lethargy.

Dehydration or severe electrolyte disturbance

A severely dehydrated animal may appear apathetic.

Chronic dehydration can lead to problems including:

  • constipation,
  • lack of energy,
  • weakening the pace of regeneration,
  • tissue damage,
  • delayed wound healing.

Eating disorders

Reduced appetite associated with certain diseases leads to weight loss as the energy used to fight the disease and maintain basic body functions is not adequately replaced. Exhausted energy reserves due to overwork and exhaustion make the animal correspondingly less responsive and apathetic.

Apathy and unresponsiveness have been found to be associated with lower body condition, old age, and other health problems. Animals with a BCS score of 2 were twice as apathetic as animals with a score of 3.


An overweight dog or cat has less energy and is more difficult to move around. The key to regaining vigor in these situations is introducing your pet to a sensible weight loss plan and ensuring an optimal diet.

Chronic pain and discomfort

Protective behaviors of animals that aim to relieve pain (e.g. offloading the limb, assuming a relaxed position or reduced activity) can be interpreted as lethargy, apathy and reluctance to make any interaction with other animals or the owner. If, in addition, all attempts to relieve pain are unsuccessful, the animal may become even more lethargic and "withdrawn".

The caregiver perceives these signs as a behavioral disorder, and in fact it is an important symptom of a deeper problem. So any medical condition or disorder that causes pain and discomfort (such as arthritis) can make your pet apathetic and lethargic.

Pets do not always express pain by whining, meowing or limping. It is often the case that a dog or cat that is suffering from pain restricts activity, does not leave its lair, does not come when called, and even refuses to eat and drink. More subtle indicators of pain can often be overlooked, meaning that the initiation of treatment for a discomfort-inducing condition may be delayed or skipped altogether.


Aging in a dog or geriatric cat may suggest that the animal is apathetic. However, this slowdown, longer naps, and mildly diminished activity may only be signs of the inevitable passage of time, and until we see significant evidence of illness, it's good to just accept it.

Unfortunately, as animals progress over the years, various diseases can develop. Osteoarthritis can drastically reduce your dog or cat's physical activity, especially if they experience discomfort when walking, running, jumping or climbing stairs. If an animal stares at its food bowl without interest, or walks away in disappointment after two bites, this lack of enthusiasm may be the answer to painful chewing due to dental disease.

Also other diseases, such as kidney, heart and liver failure, metabolic disorders or cancer, can significantly diminish the natural temperament of an animal and force it to be passive and apathetic.


There are a huge number of medications that can cause drowsiness and apathy in pets. Some of the "human" drugs can be toxic to dogs and / or cats, and many of them can cause not only apathy but also more serious problems if accidentally ingested. Contact your veterinarian as soon as possible if you notice any undesirable effects after using a given drug.


Apathy may be one of the symptoms indicative of ingestion or any other contact with a toxic substance. Unfortunately, animals are relatively often poisoned by drugs, pesticides, rodenticides and other substances commonly used in households.

Even certain foods for humans, such as onions or chocolate, can cause stomach upset and drowsiness.

Environmental factors

Low level of well-being

Apathy in a healthy animal can be a valuable indication that its welfare is somehow compromised and should never be ignored. An apathetic state may appear in an animal as a result of rough handling and inconsistent and inconsistent behavior, e.g. during training or training.

If, with each attempt to obey the command, the dog is punished by the owner (even if it is accidental), it will be less and less responsive to commands. In such situations, the animal is not able to understand and thus predict whether any "punishment " should be expected for a given behavior. They have no control over the unpleasant consequences of their behavior, therefore they will give up trying to "please" the caregiver. In this way, the dog or cat enters a state of learned helplessness characterized by indifference and apathy.

If apathy occurs as a result of mistreatment of the animal, the owner may misinterpret it as consent. As the animal becomes less and less sensitive to unpleasant stimuli (even if they are increased), the handler may find that the dog or cat has "learned the lesson" and the desired result - that is, a submissive animal - has been achieved. It should be understood that fighting, punishment, bullying, or even a lack of freedom in animal welfare can lead to high levels of stress and anxiety. So it is very important to provide your pet with the best care in order to maintain his comfort and well-being.

Change of residence or family

Dogs and cats are social animals and can feel very affected if there is a change of environment or are separated from their loved ones.

Loss of a family member

Another common cause of apathy and even depression in cats and dogs is the loss of a family member. You've probably seen one of those stories that tear at the heart: the owner of the animal walks away and the dog waits at his resting place or favorite park. Such situations show the extremely strong bonds between the animal and the guardian, but also show that mourning the passing of a loved one, with whom the dog or cat was strongly associated, can affect the pet in a similar way to humans.


Both dogs and cats can feel lonely when they spend long periods without contact with other animals and / or household members. If the owner cannot devote enough time to the pet, it is worth looking for replacement solutions. In such cases, it is ideal to provide a lone pet with smart toys and even think about a new companion for our pet.

Bad relationships with other family members

A prolonged or recent hostility towards any family member can make our dog or cat distrustful, isolating and unwilling to spend time with us.

The arrival of the baby at home

The birth of a child is always a reason for happiness, but unfortunately not always for everyone. It happens that our mentee feels sad and withdrawn when he notices that the guardian does not pay him as much attention as before.

Adoption of a dog or adoption of a cat

Competition for food, a race for the best seat on the couch, or competition for a caregiver's attention with another pet can eventually make your pet seriously sad or even depressed. Therefore, after the arrival of a new family member, it is very important to continue paying attention to an existing friend.

Stress and anxiety

Strong emotional experiences, aggression or shocking or traumatic experiences can lead our pet to apathy, sadness and even depression. In such cases, the ideal solution is to go to a specialist for guidance on how to deal with our emotionally damaged four-legged friend.

These are just some of the reasons why animals may become apathetic, but the reality is that the list goes on and on. As I mentioned earlier, lethargic behavior can be a manifestation of most diseases that affect dogs and cats.

How to interpret apathy?

Apathy is a common and non-specific symptom, and its diagnosis and correct interpretation can be difficult for both the pet handler and the veterinarian.

If your pet is behaving lethargically, try to rule out non-health causes.

For example, have you moved recently or a family member has passed away? Significant changes in the environment also affect animals and they can react with apathy or even depression. It often happens that sadness and apathy are purely emotional and not related to health.

On the other hand, even a simple change in weather can make your pet scary and anxious. If your pet seems lethargic, try to remember if there has been any change in your dog's or cat's environment in the last few days. Cats in particular are "slaves" of habits and they can experience apathy even after changing cat food or the type of litter in the litter box. Whether it's a new food or a new face, pet owners should tame their impatience and make any changes as slowly as possible.

One trap that keepers can fall into is the tendency to compare different animals with each other and draw conclusions about correct (or not) behavior on this basis. Remember that pets differ not only in appearance, but also in character, and what is extreme apathy for a Jack Russell Terrier, for a basset it can be an ordinary rest.

Some animals are just lazy or have naturally low energy levels. Dogs or cats that are older or overweight tend to have less energy than a puppy or kitten that wants to play all the time. The difference between a "lazy " or "slow motion " animal and a lethargic animal is a sudden change in behavior or any change in the general health of the dog or cat. The appearance of apathy is most often a rapid change.

What to do if my dog ​​/ cat is apathetic?

How to help a pet?

When a pet becomes listless, owners often don't know what to do.

Should you worry? Whether to take your dog / cat to the doctor? Or maybe wait and not panic?

Here are some tips that may shed some light on these doubts:

  • The first rule: if you have any concerns about the health of your pet, call your veterinarian.
    The phone call costs nothing.
  • If your pet is young, with no prior health problems, but a little sluggish for a day and with no other symptoms, you may refrain from visiting the clinic.
  • However, it is necessary to monitor your pet's behavior and in the event of any further apathy or other abnormalities, contact a doctor.
  • If there is slight diarrhea but no vomiting, it is possible to postpone the visit to the doctor, but it is necessary to monitor the pet for other symptoms or for worsening of existing ones.
  • If vomiting occurs, see your veterinarian.
  • If the apathy is mild to moderate, observe the dog / cat for 24 hours.
    If it lasts longer than 24 hours, contact your veterinarian.
  • If your pet is older or has been diagnosed with a serious illness, consult your veterinarian immediately.
  • If it is likely that the animal has had access to toxins or may have come into contact with wild animals (viper), seek veterinary advice immediately.
  • If malaise occurs with rapid weight loss, bloody diarrhea, or if it lasts more than a day or two, your veterinarian should examine your pet as soon as possible.
  • Puppies and kittens are particularly sensitive to various diseases and their symptoms.
    A puppy that refuses to eat or drink or is suffering from vomiting or diarrhea requires an immediate vet visit.
    Younger animals also become dehydrated faster.
  • Just like us, pets can also have a bad day from time to time.
    If you notice apathy in your pet, give him 24 hours.
    If it is extended to another day or there is any other cause for concern, contact your veterinarian immediately.
  • A great mistake of many pet owners is to take their pet with apathy to the doctor after more than 2 days.
    Customers often present their pets after 5 or more days of sleepiness and non-eating.
    Often at this stage, animals are at serious risk.

Most owners will agree that preventing disease is much better than treating animals that have already become sick.

Therefore - if you notice apathy in your pet - do not wait too long to visit the clinic. Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical examination of your pet, gathering a history of activity and behavioral changes preceding the symptom. It will measure the temperature of your dog or cat to determine if the fever is causing the apathy. If nothing significant is found during the test, he will perform a complete blood count and a biochemical panel to establish a list of diseases that may be associated with apathy.

Management of apathy


Since apathy in animals can result from a long list of conditions, treatment will depend on the underlying disease.

  • Certain medical conditions will require specific medications and some medical conditions may require hospitalization for maintenance treatment and intravenous fluid therapy.
    In most cases, with appropriate treatment, the animal's condition improves and normal responses and behavior return.
    If a metabolic condition is diagnosed, it will be necessary to regulate it with diet or medication.
    Infectious conditions are combated with antibiotics.
  • If apathy is associated with exhaustion and / or malnutrition, adequate rest and better nutrition can help your pet regain lost energy reserves.
    For this, a suitable (warm, calm and comfortable) place for the animal to recover should be provided.
    It may be necessary to remove other animals from the resting area to allow the dog or cat to rest unhindered.
  • Consistent handling of the animal that favors its welfare is essential.
    Humane training and training practices and reward-based rearing methods should always be promoted to prevent animals from habituating to rough handling.
  • Apathetic animals require adequate amounts of good-quality food to provide them with the energy and nutrients they need to maintain proper health and combat potential diseases.
    Feeding should be tailored to the individual needs of the animal.
  • Exercises.
    Daily activity and exercise cannot be overestimated for the animal's organism.
    Not only are they a great way to prevent boredom and discouragement in dogs and cats, they also counteract diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease that can cause apathy.
    In overweight or older animals, the exercise regimen should be introduced slowly.
    Some breeds of dogs naturally need more sleep, have less energy, and require less activity. For example: in an older pug, a short walk around the house can cause exhaustion, while a young Siberian husky may need a long run with extra weight to tire.
  • Providing the right amount of attention and affection.
    Both dogs and cats need some social activity to be happy.
    Animals that are isolated from humans and / or other animals and do not receive enough sympathy can become discouraged and apathetic. So that our client feels that he is loved and belongs to the family, try the following advice:

    • Talk to the animal.
      Even if he doesn't understand you, a sweet and affectionate tone will make him feel attached.
      Avoid reprimand and punishment and give him the best care.
    • Find the right entertainment when your cat or dog is alone.
      There are interesting smart games on the market that allow your pet to spend hours looking for a solution. One of the most popular is the kong.
    • It is important to find a moment during the day where you devote yourself exclusively to your pet.
      During this time, you can play with it, nurture it, walk or simply stroke it.
      Direct tactile contact stimulates sensitivity and encourages a better relationship between the two of you.
  • Since stress can cause apathy in animals, create a safe zone at home in which your pet will feel comfortable.
    Guests, storms, fireworks, etc. can cause enormous anxiety and stress in some animals, so it is important to provide them with space to withdraw to and feel better protected.
  • Make your pet feel useful.
    For example, if your cat catches a cockroach or brings a dead pigeon, congratulate it!
    If your dog does something just to please you, appreciate it!
  • If your dog or cat has lost someone - a family member or other pet, you can try to ease the pain of their pain by adopting a new pet. However, only do it when you can be sure that the result will not be counterproductive.
  • You can try to stimulate apathetic cats with catnip. However, be careful - some cats become extremely excitable under its influence.

Apathy can directly affect our pet's mental health, regardless of its temperament.

Everyone: a cat, dog or human needs support and attention to overcome their ailments and recover faster from an illness or injury. Paying attention to our pet and offering the best care are the most effective tools for ensuring mental and physical comfort.

Of course, these actions will not cure the animal if it has a serious underlying disease. However, they will certainly improve the general health condition, and thus the joy of life of our four-legged friend.

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